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Coffee break #44. 10 Best Java Testing Frameworks in 2020

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Source: Java unit testing frameworks provide standard, sophisticated, and extensible tools for developers to create applications or any other software. They consist of a large number of objects containing pre-written code. Depending on the choice of testing framework, it includes libraries, compilers, tools and APIs. Coffee break #44.  10 Best Frameworks for Java Testing in 2020 - 1Java unit testing frameworks provide robust security controls for the application. If a security vulnerability is found, it can be fixed on the framework's website/support. Framework creators even offer built-in functions and modules that increase the efficiency and speed of programmers and testers. What to expect from testing platforms this decade? We present to your attention a list of the best Java testing frameworks as of 2020.

1. JBehave

JBehave is one of the best Java testing frameworks with BDD (Behavior-Driven Development) support. BDD is an evolutionary continuation of TDD (Test-Driven Development) and ATDD (Acceptance Test-Driven Development). Main distributions of Jbehave:
  • JBehave Web,
  • JBehave Core.
Prerequisites for installing JBehave: The best way to use this testing framework is to add it to Eclipse. To do this, regardless of the version of Eclipse IDE (higher than indigo), you will need various jar files such as:
  • Commons-lang-2.4.jar
  • Junit-4.1.0.jar
  • Jbehave-core-3.8.jar
  • Freemarker-2.3.9.jar
  • Plexus-utils-1.1.jar
  • Paranamer-2.5.jar
  • org.apache.commons.collections.jar
Benefits of JBehave:
  • JBehave's testing framework excels thanks to its thoughtful details and intuitive ease of use.
  • JBehave does a great job for BDD, offering integration between separate development teams working on different projects but with similar specifications.
  • The JBehave framework uses a semi-official language which is very helpful for developers. The domain vocabulary ensures consistency in the team structure.
  • Stakeholders as well as project managers gain greater transparency into test teams and development team performance because the specifications follow the same format.
Cons of JBehave: JBehave, like any other BDD testing framework, has only one loophole or drawback. The success rate of a tool depends on the communication between the participants working on the project: management, testers, developers and other stakeholders. Poor communication can lead to doubts and unanswered questions. This may result in the application not meeting the client's requirements, resulting in blame for all parties involved. Is JBehave good for Java testing? JBehave works similarly to the Serenity framework. Therefore, if you plan to create automated acceptance tests, it is better to use JBehave along with Serenity. The Serenity concept is based on BDD development, which also allows you to write a detailed report on test results.

2. JUnit

JUnit is an open-source regression testing framework that is used primarily by experienced developers to perform unit testing, speed up programming, and improve the quality of Java code. The main purpose of using this tool is to enable Java developers to script and implement repeatable test cases. It is one of the most commonly used unit testing frameworks in Java. Most often, JUnit is used to test small pieces of code. It can also be used to perform automated website tests by combining Selenium WebDriver with JUnit for automated Java testing. When adding any new code, the tester will be asked to reload the full test cases and ensure there are no breaks. JUnit Features:
  • Test suites;
  • Using common sets of objects;
  • JUnit classes;
  • Test Runners.
Prerequisites for installing JUnit: Based on SUnit and written in Smalltalk, this Java unit testing framework is adapted for Selenium WebDriver . To install it you need to meet the following requirements:
  • Have the latest version of the JDK on your computer.
  • (Optional) Unzip $JUNIT_HOME/src. jar file.
  • Skills and experience developing applications in an object-oriented language, preferably Java.
  • Download the new version of JUnit and configure the framework.
Advantages of JUnit:
  • Since JUnit supports Java 8 features, it can be used for both integration and unit tests.
  • The framework makes it easy to detect errors at an early stage, resulting in healthy and reliable code.
  • Programmers who work with JUnit find it extremely useful. It makes it easier to read code and check for vulnerabilities.
  • JUnit allows you to create code that is free of errors and with better readability.
  • Compatible with almost all major IDEs such as Eclipse, NetBeans, Maven, Ant and IntelliJ IDEA. So you can easily write and run unit tests directly from these IDEs.
  • Using the updated version of JUnit (version 5), you can easily define an exception.
  • The unit testing framework can be used with Java 5 or other versions.
Disadvantages of JUnit: The JUnit framework cannot perform dependency tests. This requires TestNG. Is JUnit good for Java testing? JUnit is a widely used Java-based framework. Both TestNG and JUnit do similar work, and their key characteristics are somewhat the same, with the exception of dependency testing capabilities. The procedure for performing parameterized testing is also different in both frameworks. Due to the fact that JUnit has been in use for a very long time, it has a lot of support from the Java community. It is also defined as a standard unit testing framework by integrating Selenium WebDriver for Java based applications. The choice between JUnit or TestNG for running tests depends entirely on the conditions and needs of a particular case.

3. Serenity

Serenity , formerly known as Thucydides, is one of the most widely used open source Java testing frameworks. The Serenity BDD framework will help you create clear, structured and manageable testing criteria. It extends the functionality of both Selenium WebDriver and JUnit. With this specialized platform, you can create descriptive testing reports. Additionally, you can match automated testing to your needs. Overall, this framework makes Java development more reliable and efficient. Features of Serenity:
  • Open source project;
  • Full reports on testing and implementation results;
  • Business format report for each test.
Prerequisites for installing Serenity: Since Serenity's automated framework is based on Java, you will of course need to have sufficient knowledge of Java or another object-oriented programming language. The following must also be installed on your computer:
  • JDK 5 or later.
  • Maven 3.0 or later.
  • IDE (usually Eclipse).
Benefits of Serenity:
  • The framework helps the tester to create test cases for REST services.
  • Maintains a balance between the description and understanding of a test case, as well as the approach to its implementation.
  • Users do not need to spend additional time maintaining or creating their own automated infrastructure.
  • Serenity can be integrated with various development frameworks such as Spring and testing frameworks such as Selenium, JBehave, as well as project management tools such as JIRA.
Cons of Serenity: The disadvantage of Serenity is similar to the JBehave framework for Java. To make the most of the support provided by BDD, regular communication between project participants is required. Is Serenity good for Java testing? This Java testing framework is mainly used for writing acceptance criteria and reporting. Reports written with Serenity are more efficient, useful, rich, and informative than other BDD frameworks such as JBehave. It helps programmers write high-quality test automation scripts. Serenity also supports Selenium WebDriver and Rest Assured, allowing testers to create automated acceptance testing criteria faster and easier.


TestNG is one of the most popular Java testing frameworks used for integration, functional, and unit testing. It was created by Cedric Beist in 2004 and has now been updated to version 7. It is the main competitor of the JUnit framework. TestNG is similar to JUnit, but has some annotations and features that are not supported by Junit. TestNG can be used in almost all types of software testing, including end-to-end, unit, integration, and functional. Both TestNG and JUnit are Java-based frameworks that allow you to write tests and verify the end result. If the test was successful, you will see a green bar, otherwise you will see a red bar. Features of TestNG:
  • Supports testing of dependent methods;
  • Flexible test configuration;
  • Supports the sturdy execution model;
  • Installed in BeanShell for added flexibility.
Prerequisites for installing TestNG: The Java-based TestNG framework has features such as grouping, ordering, and parameterization. This makes test cases customizable and eliminates loopholes in previously used frameworks. To install TestNG you will need:
  • Latest JDK version;
  • Latest version of Eclipse;
  • Understanding and practical experience of the Java programming language or other object-oriented programming language.
Benefits of TestNG:
  • Allows you to create and run parallel testing of multiple code fragments.
  • When implementing a test case, you can generate a report in HTML format.
  • Tests can be easily organized and grouped according to priorities. It's much easier to run tests by simply putting the framework in place to do external or database testing.
  • Priorities can be easily set by parameterizing the data and using annotations.
Disadvantages of TestNG: TestNG may not be suitable for you if your project does not require test case prioritization. Additionally, TestNG takes more time to set up. Is TestNG good for Java testing? As we already know, the JUnit testing framework performs all the same functions as TestNG, but has some disadvantages. JUnit is great when the test is run in isolation. However, when there is some kind of dependency, you will not get any control over the previous testing. TestNG frameworks for Java help by allowing you to execute test cases exactly the way you want. Additionally, you get additional parameterization support in TestNG . Although this feature is already present in JUnit 4.5, the TestNG framework is more useful. If any project is complex and you may need 100 or more test cases, it is better to take extra time and customize the TestNG framework rather than completely depend on other frameworks like JUnit.


Selenide is a popular open source Java testing framework powered by Selenium WebDriver. It is an excellent tool for writing accurate, communicative and stable UI tests for a Java application. It extends the functionality of WebDriver and JUnit. WebDriver is one of our favorite UI testing tools, but it lacks timeout capabilities. For example, testing web technologies such as Ajax. The Selenide framework easily handles all these problems. Plus, it's easier to install and learn. You just need to focus on the logic and Selenide will do the rest. Selenide Features:
  • Does not require complex setup;
  • Doesn't require writing a lot of code;
  • Saves a lot of time;
  • Ideal configuration for CI Tool like Jenkins.
Prerequisites for installing Selenide: Since this framework is Java-based, you will need experience with Java or other object-oriented programming languages. The following must be installed on your PC:
  • JDK 5 or newer;
  • Maven 3.0 or other versions;
  • Integrated development environment (IDE) tool. Most often, all developers prefer Eclipse because the combination of Eclipse and Maven is easier to work with.
Selenide benefits:
  • Selenide makes your tests accurate and stable, solving (almost) all Ajax/timing problems.
  • Reducing the process of writing test cases.
  • Support for tests of applications developed using AngularJS.
  • Reduces the number of commands that were previously used by other Selenium tools.
Disadvantages of Selenide: So far, no one has discovered any noticeable disadvantages of using Selenide. Is Selenide good for Java testing? If you want to do UI tests, you'll probably learn Selenium WebDriver first. However, Selenium WebDriver cannot solve problems related to slow JavaScript startup, Ajax timeouts, or any dynamic content that takes extra time to load. To deal with these issues, we previously used the "sleep" or "wait_until" methods in test cases. With a Java testing framework like Selenide, we no longer need to think about these issues.

6. Gauge

The creators of Selenium Thoughtworks have released yet another Java testing framework for performing automated tests on web applications. Gauge is a free and open source test automation framework for Java that reduces the burden of acceptance testing with less code. It is one of the most commonly used Java testing frameworks in the tech stack category for testing mobile websites. Automated tests using this framework can produce easy-to-read tests regardless of language. Similar to Selenium, this testing framework supports multiple programming languages ​​including Ruby, JavaScript, Java, C#, and Python. Gauge Features:
  • Easy to use, flexible syntax;
  • Uses business-like language;
  • Supports multiple languages ​​and platforms;
  • Lots of plugins.
Prerequisites for installing Gauge:
  • Download and install Maven ;
  • Operating system Microsoft Windows 10 or higher;
  • Memory – 512 MB RAM (minimum);
  • The Gauge plugin must be configured with your integrated development environment (IDE) or the Gauge framework must be installed if you are running the test from CMD/Terminal.
Advantages of Gauge:
  • Makes scripts readable and understandable.
  • Easy to use, flexible syntax and support for all types of languages ​​(Java, Javascript, C#, Ruby, Python, etc.) and platforms.
  • Allows you to create tests in the integrated development environment (IDE) of your choice (IntelliJ, Vi VS Code, Visual Studio, Maven, Gradle, Eclipse, etc.).
  • Performs parallel testing and generates custom reports.
  • Easily tests large data sets while maintaining high accuracy and readability.
Disadvantages of Gauge:
  • Gauge is a new framework, so users don't know much about it.
  • Gauge does not support secure parallel implementation of specifications within IntelliJ due to the fact that the driver is static and must be used in conjunction with scripts.
Is Gauge good for Java testing? The Gauge Java testing framework is great for cross-browser testing. Its features are so simple that it allows even non-technical users to write tests easily.

7. Geb

Geb is a browser testing framework built on top of Selenium WebDriver. This makes it ideal for automated tests, and you can easily perform cross-browser testing on all browsers supported by WebDriver. Geb provides extraordinary capabilities for front-end data analysis, web testing, and much more. What makes it exceptional is the way it queries HTML pages, producing jQuery-like syntax. The Geb platform also offers native support for the Page Object Model . Geb can be used for general scraping, scripting, and also for automation. It is equally well suited as a solution for acceptance testing, web testing or functional testing thanks to its integration with test frameworks such as TestNG, JUnit and Spock. Geb Features:
  • Full jQuery syntax support;
  • Apache License 2.0;
  • WebDriver compatible;
  • Stability of page object modeling;
  • Groovy articulation.
Requirements for installing Geb:
  • You need to download and install Maven ;
  • Availability of Java 8 or later;
  • LambdaTest authentication and verification credentials;
  • A copy of the LambdaTest repository on GitHub for the Geb test automation framework.
Advantages of Geb:
  • The Page Objects form and Geb's Groovy DSL make the tests easy to read as they are more or less similar to English.
  • Runs tests at high speed and saves your testing costs. Compatible with various browsers such as Internet Explorer, HTMLUnit, Firefox and Chrome.
  • Performs tests in real time and in a real environment—one that a user would observe. Provides maximum efficiency of tests within a single script.
  • Allows you to carry out regression testing without problems. You can run Geb test cases to check if any active functionality is broken after modification or fix in the application.
Disadvantages of Geb:
  • The downside of Geb is that it uses WebDriver in the Groovy language. Therefore, only that specific language is supported when using Webdriver. However, if you try to use WebDriver directly, it will support other languages, including Java, Ruby, C# and Python.
  • Geb is not suitable for small projects, but works well for large tasks. If your web application doesn't contain pages and forms through which data must flow, its structure may seem unwieldy.
Is Geb good for Java testing? Geb's Java testing framework provides smart integration modules for platforms such as Cucumber, TestNG, JUnit and Spock. The best choice for Geb would be Spock. Using these two frameworks can produce concise, clear, and understandable test specifications with less effort.


Spock is a popular test automation framework for Java. It is written in Groovy and allows testers to run data-driven tests on the Java Virtual Machine. Spock provides excellent compatibility with many languages ​​that support the JVM. One of the features of Spock is that the code documentation and code readability are organized and neat, plus it can interpret simple English sentences. It is often used by software developers to create enterprise applications in Java. For these reasons, Spock has become the most popular and user-friendly Java testing framework in 2020. Spock Features:
  • De facto, this is an extended version of the JUnit Java framework;
  • Support for mock objects;
  • Tests can be written in any language.
Prerequisites for installing Spock:
  • Latest JDK version;
  • Updated version of Eclipse;
  • Knowledge of the Java programming language.
Spock advantages:
  • Stunning readability, ensuring compatibility with plain English sentences compared to other Java automation testing frameworks.
  • Stubbing and Mocking with Spock is easier and more painless than ever. In addition, they are built into the framework.
  • Clearer and shorter parameterization.
  • Maintains surrounding context, making it easier to discover the cause of a failure.
  • Simplified and communicative Domain Specific Language (DSL).
Disadvantages of Spock:
  • It is written in Groovy, so you must have basic knowledge of Groovy.
  • You may find the Spock framework a little clunky, but once you get familiar with it, you won't think about switching to other Java test frameworks.
Is Spock good for Java testing? Yes, many consider it the best Java testing framework and rank it first. Spock is the best testing platform for Behavior-Driven development, thanks to its powerful DSL, ease of use and intuitive user interface. Especially if you have JVM based applications. Spock is compatible with RSpec, jMock, JUnit, Mockito, Vulcans, Groovy, Scala and other useful technologies.

9. HttpUnit

HttpUnit is a widely used open source testing framework. It allows you to test websites without any browser requirements. HttpUnit is great for running automated testing scripts for web applications. As the name suggests, HttpUnit can be used for unit tests. However, common web tier elements such as servlets, JSP (JavaServer Pages), and other template elements are not amenable to unit tests. Written in Java, the framework allows you to run tests on returned pages, XML DOM, text, table containers, links and forms. Features of HttpUnit:
  • Cookie support;
  • Supports HTTPS and HTTP protocols;
  • HTML response support;
  • Proxy server support;
  • Excellent JavaScript support.
Prerequisites for installing HttpUnit:
  • The system must support Java JDK 1.4 or latest version.
  • Add Tidy.jar and httpunit.ja, integrated with HttpUnit, to your classpath; Also make sure that the XML parser is pre-installed.
  • If you are using an older version of Java, you must include a JAXP-compatible XML parser on your classpath.
  • The latest version of HttpUnit is available on this page .
Advantages of HttpUnit:
  • Allows you to automate the testing of web applications and helps in regression testing.
  • One of the benefits of HTTPUnit is that it is much faster than other test automation frameworks such as Selenium.
  • Excellent JavaScript support, which allows you to simulate the work of a customized browser (IE or Firefox).
  • HTTPUnit uses the Rhino JavaScript engine as its core language and provides object execution exactly for browser implementation.
  • Unit tests from popular JavaScript libraries are integrated into HtmlUnit's own unit tests based on these unit tests. Supports jQuery 1.11.3, MochiKit 1.4.1, MooTools 1.2.1, etc. libraries, works great with HtmlUnit.
  • Ability to insert code into the current page using HtmlPage.executeJavascript(String yourJsCode).
Disadvantages of HttpUnit:
  • This is a good option for running simple tests, but creating complex tests will require a lot more code.
  • A framework like Selenium is more specific, allowing browser-centric behavior that does not limit the applications being tested. With the HttpUnit framework you will get limited support except for some major browsers.
Is HttpUnit good for Java testing? HttpUnit is extremely easy to use, install and run. It's good to use for running simple tests, but creating complex tests will require a high level of coding. Compared to HTTPUnit, a test automation framework like Selenium has more advantages. As for elements based on the Model-View Controller platform, they are suitable for testing with other types of platforms. For example, WebWork 2 activities can be unit tested without a web container, and Struts activities can be unit tested using StrutsUnit.

10. JWebUnit

JWebUnit is a Java-based testing framework that is an extension of JUnit. It is used for integration, regression and functional testing. JWebUnit combines current active frameworks such as HTMLUnit and Selenium with a simple testing interface. This way you can instantly check the accuracy of your web applications. JWebUnit can be used to perform screen navigation tests. The platform also offers an advanced Java application programming interface for navigating the web application to verify the accuracy of the application. This takes into account link navigation, form entry and submission, table content justification, and other common features of business applications. Features of JWebUnit:
  • Top-level Java API for navigating a web application.
  • Open source Java based framework.
Prerequisites for installing JWebUnit:
  • You need to install Maven.
  • The current stable version of JWebUnit is 3.3. Java 1.7 required.
  • Add the plugin you need: HtmlUnit for faster tests and excellent support for Javascript and Webdriver: BETA quality.
  • To manage dependencies in Eclipse when using Maven 2, use the m2e plugin.
Advantages of JWebUnit:
  • Used to test on-screen navigation.
  • Provides a top-level API for navigating web applications.
  • Simple navigation with easily accessible assertions allows you to create tests faster than using JUnit or HtmlUnit.
  • If someone wishes to switch from HtmlUnit to other types of plugins such as Selenium, there is no need to rewrite the tests.
Disadvantages of JWebUnit: Both TestNG and JWebUnit do similar work and the features are very similar except for dependency test capabilities. Is JWebUnit good for Java testing? Htmlunit is an ideal option for JavaScript support. However, JWebUnit offers application programming interfaces, it is also easy to write clear code with JWebUnit, which is often not possible with HttpUnit. JWebUnit has an intuitive API that makes it accessible and easy to use, even if a person has only a rough understanding of HTML. JWebUnit works well, but sometimes adding a little BDD can make a difference. Behavior-driven design or development is a great way to model user interaction with your application using JWebUnit.


It is vital for developers to be experts in software testing and have a strong understanding of testing. This is what separates experienced Java developers from newbies. To get closer to perfection, you are highly recommended to learn the 10 best Java testing frameworks mentioned above. They will make it easier for you to test your applications. Apart from familiarizing yourself with Java testing frameworks, you should also choose the right test automation framework